Classical Persuasion Perspective





Aristotle's Types of Persuasion

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photo credit: http://arcticcompass.blogspot.com

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photo credit: http://www.politicsdaily.com
Epideictic Persuasion: FDR giving his
famous "Day of Infamy"speech in
order to blame the event of Pearl Harbor.

Forensic Persuasion: OJ Simpson
on trial for the court to try to prove
(or disprove) the past action
of murder.

Deliberative Persuasion: JFK vs. Nixon
in the 1960 presidential election, both of
which are trying to determine the future actions
our country should take.


Aristotle's Artistic Proof:


Ethos- Proving the persuader's credibility


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  • Source credibility- A persuader's degree of safety (the degree to which we trust the source), qualification (expertise of the source), and dynamism (aggressiveness, boldness, and energy used to emphasize, augment, and implement the persuader's ideas) (Borchers)
    • Essentially, WHY do we think this persuader is credible?
      • Does a celebrity, like Gwen Stefani, seem to be a credible source to persuade someone to buy L'Oreal Le Rouge?

Pathos- Appealing to audience emotion











video credit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gspElv1yvc


  • Aristotle's Emotional Appeals
    • Aristotle identified several emotional states, which persuaders use to make motivational appeals (feelings-based approaches a persuader uses) including: anger, calmness, fear, shame, pity, and envy (Borchers)
      • Persuaders hope to convince the audience to donate to their organziation because audience members pity the animals seen in the video.



Logos- Using logical reasoning












video credit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSQQK2Vuf9Q&

  • Stephen Toulmin developed one model of reasoning comprised of: data, warrant, claim, backing, qualifiers, and rebuttal.
  • Narratives can also be used as both the content and form of reasoning (Borchers)
    • To evaluate narratives, consider their probablility and fidelity
        • Does Zach Wahls' story seem to hold together? Is the story based on facts? Is it relevent? Does he address consequences associated with what is proposed? Is his story consistent with the values of his audience? Is this a transcendent issue?




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